Policy Instruments

Armed Intervention should be one of the final Policy Instruments employed by a country. Many action short of armed intervention are available and should be employed before Armed Intervention

K.J.Holsti in International Politics mentions a number.

1. Persuasion and Propaganda

2. The offering of a Reward : increased foreign aid or loans, lower tariffs on goods imported from country, promise to remove an earlier imposed punishment

3. The granting of Rewards: Export and import licenses

4. Nonviolent Punishment: breaking diplomatic relations, raising tariffs, Quotas, instituting boycotts and embargoes, organizing blockades, closing frontiers, walking out of a diplomatic conference

5. Threats of Force: Increased miltary action or build up, providing araments to hostile neighbours

6. Economic Coercion and Reward: In addition to those included above freezing assets, Granting or suspending milatry sales or grants, Tariffs, Fiscal Year Achievements in Forign Affairs

Holsti, K.J. International Politics, Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice Hall