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Philosophy comes from the greek meaning "love of wisdom". It can be characterized by method, subject matter or as an kind of intellectual or reflective attitude.

Bailey 2004 identifies three major characteristics of philosophical questions:
1. They are of deep and lasting interest to humans
2. There has not been settled answers
3. Answers can not be determined by science, faith or common sense


An arguement is any sequence of statements intended to establish a particular claim. The statements are premises and the last is aa conclusion. Arguments can be criticized by challenging truth of the premises or secondly that even if true the conclusion doesn't follow.


I have divided the philosphy of religion into two files: Theology and Spirituality


Karl Popper

The Britannica Guide to The 100 Most Influential Scientists

Kuhn, Thomas S. (1962, 1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolution, 2nd Edition, Enlarged Chicago: University of Chicago


[1] Thompson, Mel (2007) Teach Yourself Philosophy of Religion, New York: McGraw Hill Ryerson


Aristotle (1996) The Nicomachean Ethics, Ware, Wordsworth Classics, 1996
Aristotle (1962) The Politics, Harmondsworth: Penguin Classics, 1962
Bailey, Andrew (2004) First Philosophy: Fundamental Problems in Philosophy, Volume 1 Values and Society
Barnes, Hazel E. (1967) An Existentialist Ethics New York: Vintage Books, 1967
Beauchamp, Tom L. and James F. Childress (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics 5th Edition Oxford: Oxford University Press
Blackburn, Simon (2001) Ethics, A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University
Brehony, Kathleen A. (1999) Ordinary Grace, An Examination of Compassion, Altruism, and Empathy, and the Ordinary Individuals Who Help Others in Extraordinary Ways, New York: Riverside Books
Comte-Sponville, Andre (2005) The Little Book of Philosophy, London: Random House
Copi, Irving M. Introduction to Logic 2nd Edition , New York: The MacMillan Company
Crisp, Roger and Micahel Slote (1997) Virtue Ethics, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Eisenberg, John A (1992) The Limits of Reason, Indeterminacy in Law, Education, and Morality, Toronto Oise Press
Etzioni, Amitai (1993), The Spirit of Community, Rights, Responsibilities and the Communitarian Agenda, New York: Crown Publishers, 1993
Fukuyama, Francis (1995) Trust, The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995
Glendon, Mary Ann (1991) Rights talk, The Impoverishment of Political Discourse, New York: the Free Press
Haack, Susan (1978) Philosophy of Logics Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Halberstam, Josshua (1993) Everyday Ethics, New York: Penguin
Hauser, Marc D.(2006) Moral Minds, The Nature of Right and Wrong, New York: Prennial Harper
Hinde Robert A.(2002) Why Good is Good, The Source of Morality New York: Routledge
Hobbes, Thomas (1962) Leviathan, New York: Collier Books 1962
Hume, David (1966) An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, Peru, Illinois: Open Court Classics
Hume, David (1975) Enquiries concerning Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Hunnex, Milton D (1986) Chronological and Thematic Charts of Philosophies & Philosophers, Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House
Kidder, Rushworth M. (2003) How Good People Make Tough Choices New York: Harper
Kuhn, Thomas S. (1962, 1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolution, 2nd Edition, Enlarged Chicago: University of Chicago
Machiavelli, Niccolo (1966), The Prince, Toronto: Bantam Books
Machover, Moshe (1996) Set Theory, logic and their limitations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
MacIntyre, Alasdair(1966) A Short History of Ethics, A history of Moral Philosophy from the Homeric Age to the twentieth Century,New York: Collier Books
Nietzsche, Friedrich (1966) Beyond Good & Evil, New York: Vintage Books, 1966
Olthuis, James H. (2000) Toward an Ethics of Community, Negotiations of Difference in a Pluralistic Society
Plato, The Republic, London: Penquin Books, 1987
Quine, W.V. (1981) Mathematical Logic, Revised Logic, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Rachels, James (1999) The Elements of Moral Philosophy 3rd, Boston: McGraw Hill
Robinson, Dave and Chris Garratt (1999) Introducing Ethics, Cambridge: Icon Books
Rosenthal, Joel H. Ethics & International Affairs, A Reader, Georgetown: Georgetown University Press 1995
Rusk, Tom (1993) The Power of Ethical Persuasion, New York: Penguin Books
Scheffler, Samuel (1988) Consequentialism and its Critics, Oxford University Press
Smith, Adams (1976) The Theory of Moral Sentiments, Indianapolis, Liberty Fund
Somerville, Margaret (2000) The Ethical Canary, Science, Society and the Human Spirit, Toronto: Penguin Book
Somerville, Margaret (2006) The Ethical Imagination, Journeys of the Human Spirit, Toronto: House of Anansi
Thompson, Mel (2000) Teach Yourself Ethics, Lincolnwood, Illinois: NTC/Contemporary Publishing
Thompson, Mel (2000) Teach Yourself Philosophy, Lincolnwood, Illinois: NTC/Contemporary Publishing
Williamson, Marianne (2002) Every Day Grace, Having Hope, Finding Forgiveness, and Making Miracles, New York: Riverhead Books
Wolfe, Alan (2001) Moral Freedom, The Search for Virtue in a World of Choice, New York: W.W. Norton


Thank God for Evolution