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Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [on the report of the Third Committee 66/176. Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic The General Assembly, Guided by the Charter of the United Nations, Reaffirming the purposes and principles of the Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1 and relevant international human rights treaties, including the International Covenants on Human Rights,2 Recalling Human Rights Council resolution S-16/1 of 29 April 2011, 3 and recalling also Human Rights Council resolution S-17/1 of 23 August 2011,3 which established an independent international commission of inquiry to investigate all alleged violations of international human rights law since March 2011 in the Syrian Arab Republic, and regretting the lack of cooperation of the Syrian authorities with the commission of inquiry, Welcoming all efforts made by the League of Arab States to address all aspects of the situation in the Syrian Arab Republic, and the steps undertaken by the League of Arab States to ensure the implementation of its Plan of Action, including those aimed at ending all human rights violations and all acts of violence, Expressing concern about the continuing lack of commitment by the Syrian authorities to fully and immediately implement the Plan of Action of the League of Arab States of 2 November 2011, Welcoming the decisions of the League of Arab States of 12 and 16 November 2011 on the developments in respect of the situation in the Syrian Arab Republic, Expressing deep concern about the ongoing human rights violations and use of violence by the Syrian authorities against their population,Reaffirming that all States Members of the United Nations should refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations,

1. Strongly condemns the continued grave and systematic human rights violations by the Syrian authorities, such as arbitrary executions, excessive use of force and the persecution and killing of protesters and human rights defenders, arbitrary detention, enforced disappearances, torture and ill-treatment of detainees, including children;

2. Calls upon the Syrian authorities to immediately put an end to all human rights violations, to protect their population and to fully comply with their obligations under international human rights law, and calls for an immediate end to all violence in the Syrian Arab Republic;

3. Also calls upon the Syrian authorities to implement the Plan of Action of the League of Arab States in its entirety without further delay;

4. Invites the Secretary-General, in accordance with his functions, to provide support, if requested, to the League of Arab States observer mission in the Syrian Arab Republic, consistent with the decisions of the League of Arab States of 12 and 16 November 2011;

5. Calls upon the Syrian authorities to comply with Human Rights Council resolutions S-16/13 and S-17/1,3 including by cooperating fully and effectively with the independent international commission of inquiry. (89th plenary meeting 19 December 2011)

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Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [without reference to a Main Committee (A/66/L.36 and Add.1)] 66/253. (97th plenary meeting 16 February 2012)

The situation in the Syrian Arab Republic The General Assembly, Recalling its resolution 66/176 of 19 December 2011, as well as Human Rights Council resolutions S-16/1 of 29 April 2011,1 S-17/1 of 23 August 20111 and S-18/1 of 2 December 2011,2 Expressing grave concern at the deterioration of the situation in the Syrian Arab Republic, in particular the ongoing human rights violations and use of violence by the Syrian authorities against its population, Reaffirming the role of regional and subregional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security as set out in Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, Reaffirming also its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the Syrian Arab Republic and to the principles of the Charter, Reaffirming further that all States Members of the United Nations should refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations, Welcoming the engagement of the Secretary-General and all diplomatic efforts aimed at ending the crisis,

1. Reaffirms its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the Syrian Arab Republic, and stresses the need to resolve the current political crisis in the Syrian Arab Republic peacefully;

2. Strongly condemns the continued widespread and systematic violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms by the Syrian authorities, such as the use of force against civilians, arbitrary executions, the killing and persecution of protestors, human rights defenders and journalists, arbitrary detention, enforced disappearances, interference with access to medical treatment, torture, sexual violence, and ill-treatment, including against children;

3. Calls upon the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to immediately put an end to all human rights violations and attacks against civilians, protect its population, fully comply with its obligations under applicable international law and fully implement Human Rights Council resolutions S-16/1,1 S-17/11 and S-18/1,2 as well as General Assembly resolution 66/176, including by cooperating fully with the independent international commission of inquiry;

4. Condemns all violence, irrespective of where it comes from, and calls upon all parties in the Syrian Arab Republic, including armed groups, to stop all violence or reprisals immediately, in accordance with the League of Arab States initiative;

5. Stresses again the importance of ensuring accountability and the need to end impunity and hold to account those responsible for human rights violations, including those violations that may amount to crimes against humanity;

6. Demands that the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic, in accordance with the Plan of Action of the League of Arab States of 2 November 2011 and the decisions of the League of Arab States of 22 January and 12 February 2012, without delay: (a) Cease all violence and protect its population; (b) Release all persons detained arbitrarily owing to the recent incidents; (c) Withdraw all Syrian military and armed forces from cities and towns and return them to their original home barracks; (d) Guarantee the freedom of peaceful demonstration; (e) Allow full and unhindered access and movement for all relevant League of Arab States institutions and Arab and international media in all parts of the Syrian Arab Republic to determine the truth about the situation on the ground and monitor the incidents taking place;

7. Calls for an inclusive Syrian-led political process, conducted in an environment free from violence, fear, intimidation and extremism and aimed at effectively addressing the legitimate aspirations and concerns of the people of the Syrian Arab Republic, without prejudging the outcome;

8. Fully supports the League of Arab States decision of 22 January 2012 to facilitate a Syrian-led political transition to a democratic, pluralistic political system, in which citizens are equal regardless of their affiliations or ethnicities or beliefs, including through the commencement of a serious political dialogue between the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic and the whole spectrum of the Syrian opposition, under the auspices of the League of Arab States and in accordance with the timetable set out by the League of Arab States;

9. Calls upon all Member States to provide support to the League of Arab States initiative, as requested;

10. Calls upon the Syrian authorities to allow safe and unhindered access for humanitarian assistance in order to ensure the delivery of humanitarian aid to persons in need of assistance;

11. Requests, in this context, the Secretary-General and all relevant United Nations bodies to provide support to the efforts of the League of Arab States, both through good offices aimed at promoting a peaceful solution to the Syrian crisis, including through the appointment of a special envoy, and through technical and material assistance, in consultation with the League of Arab States;

12. Requests the Secretary-General to report on the implementation of the present resolution, in consultation with the League of Arab States, within fifteen days of its adoption. (97th plenary meeting 16 February 2012)

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Six-point plan:

The UN is calling for full compliance with the six-point plan proposed by UN-Arab League Joint Special Envoy Kofi Annan as an initial road map for resolving the crisis. The Security Council endorsed the plan and set up the UN Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS) as a key element.

As annexed to Security Council resolution 2042 (2012) of 14 April Six-Point Proposal of the Joint Special Envoy of the United Nations and the League of Arab States

(1) commit to work with the Envoy in an inclusive Syrian-led political process to address the legitimate aspirations and concerns of the Syrian people, and, to this end, commit to appoint an empowered interlocutor when invited to do so by the Envoy;

(2) commit to stop the fighting and achieve urgently an effective United Nations supervised cessation of armed violence in all its forms by all parties to protect civilians and stabilize the country; To this end, the Syrian government should immediately cease troop movements towards, and end the use of heavy weapons in, population centres, and begin pullback of military concentrations in and around population centres; As these actions are being taken on the ground, the Syrian government should work with the Envoy to bring about a sustained cessation of armed violence in all its forms by all parties with an effective United Nations supervision mechanism. Similar commitments would be sought by the Envoy from the opposition and all relevant elements to stop the fighting and work with him to bring about a sustained cessation of armed violence in all its forms by all parties with an effective United Nations supervision mechanism;

(3) ensure timely provision of humanitarian assistance to all areas affected by the fighting, and to this end, as immediate steps, to accept and implement a daily two hour humanitarian pause and to coordinate exact time and modalities of the daily pause through an efficient mechanism, including at local level;

(4) intensify the pace and scale of release of arbitrarily detained persons, including especially vulnerable categories of persons, and persons involved in peaceful political activities, provide without delay through appropriate channels a list of all places in which such persons are being detained, immediately begin organizing access to such locations and through appropriate channels respond promptly to all written requests for information, access or release regarding such persons;

(5) ensure freedom of movement throughout the country for journalists and a non-discriminatory visa policy for them;

(6) respect freedom of association and the right to demonstrate peacefully as legally guaranteed.

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On 21 April 2012, the Security Council adopted resolution 2043 that set up the UN Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS), initially for a period of 90 days and a deployment of up to 300 unarmed military observers and a civilian component. Mandate: - To monitor a cessation of armed violence in all its forms by all parties; - To monitor and support the full implementation of the six-point plan. Commander: Chief Military Observer Robert Mood

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Joint Special Envoy Kofi Annan, Joint Special Envoy on the Syrian crisis

Through his good offices, the Joint Special Envoy seeks to promote a peaceful solution to the crisis in line with the aspirations of the Syrian people. He represents the Secretaries-General of the UN and the League of Arab States on the Syrian crisis. • Statements/press remarks • Meeting of the Action Group The Joint Special Envoy (JSE) convened a meeting of the Action Group for Syria in Geneva on 30 June 2012.

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Model United Nations Assembly (MUNA)

MUNA2012

The First Kenora Model United nations was held April 27 and 28th. If interested in attending the Model United Nations in 2012-13 please send an email to jretson@shaw.ca.

Basic Material on MUNA

What is Model United Nations or (MUNA)

The Model United Nations Assembly, or MUNA, is a reproduction of the United Nations General Assembly. An agenda of topics, closely related to issues before the current UN General Assembly, is prepared for debate several months in advance of the MUNA event, which takes place each year in the month of May. Participating students are expected to diligently acquire information on agenda items about the policies of the country they will represent.

Muna Picture Gallery

Model UN Headquarters      Resource Page     Briefing Papers for Students     CyberSchoolBus Global Teaching and Learning Project

Winnipeg MUNA Site

Parliamentary Procedeures

Basic Information on United Nations:

General United Nations Website

The Work of United Nations briefly summarized

United Nation's Charter

Documentation of UN's Activities including Resolutions of General Assembly

Un Treaties

2012 Resolutions

Resolution 1 -  Resource for Resolution 1

Resolution 2   Resource for Resolution 2

Resolution 3 -   Resource for Resolution 3

Resolution 4 -   Resource for Resolution 4

Un Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development

UN Program on Ageing

Madrid Plan of Action on Aging

1982 Vienna International Plan of Action on Ageing

Additional Useful Websites

International Court of Justice Decisions

International Atomic Energy Agency

The World Bank

International Monetary Fund

An excellent presntation of the goals of the IMF can be found at the following site: IMF

Researching Countries

Collection of Government resources to more than 100 countries

Countries

To see specifice Country down load Google Earth to download software. Run Good earth program that is downloaded and then enter the name of the Country you want to see. Clicking on various characteristics on the left margin such as borders will give greater details.

Afghanistan    Angola    Argentina    Austria    Australia   
Belgium    Bolivia    Canada    China    Cuba   
Democratic Republic of the Congo Eritrea    Ethiopia
Fiji    France    Germany    Greece    Israel    Iraq   
Jamaica    Japan    Jordan    Kenya Kosovo    Libya   
Mexico    Netherlands     New Zealand     Nigeria    Norway   
North Korea    Pakistan    Poland   
Russia    Spain    Somolia    South Africa   
South Korea    Sudan    Sweden    United Kingdom   
Venezuela    Uganda    United States    Vietnam    Yemen  

Subjects worth Studying

African Development      Aging      Aids/HIV      A More Secure World     Armed Intervention   

Children     Climate Change    Corruption    Debt Relief    Disabilities   
Disarmament     Duty to Protect    Environment    Foreign Policy Goals    G - 20   

Geopolitics    Human Genome     Human Rights     Indigenous People    International Law   

International Criminal Law    International Financial System and Development    International Ethics    International Space Law   
Islam    International Trade    Law of the Sea    Malaria    Millennium Development Goals   
Duty to Protect    NPT Non-proliferation Treaty    Nuclear Disarmament    Nuclear Freezone    OECD    Policy Instruments (Short of Violence)   
Poverty    Responsibility to Protect- Also Known as R2P    Sovereignty   
Terrorism    Torture    United Nation's Charter    United Nation Association in Canada

Books Worth Reading

Fasulo, Linda (2004) An Insiders Guide to the UN, New haven Yale Univesity Press

Kennedy, Paul (2006) The Parliament of Man, The Past, Present, and Future of the United nations, Toronto: HarperCollinsPublisher

Landeres, David S (1999) The Wealth and Poverty of nations, Why Some are So Rich and Some So Poor, New York: W.W. Norton

Lomborg, Bjorn (2007) Solutions for the Worlds Bigget Problems, Cost and Benefits, Cambridge: Cambrideg University Press

Maathai, Wangari (2009) The Challenge for Africa, New York: Pantheon

Rashid, Ahmed (2008) Descnt into Chaos, The United States and the Failure of nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asia

Sachs, jeffrey D (2005) The End of Poverty, New York: The Penquin Press

Sachs, jeffrey D (2008) Common Wealth, Economics for A Crowded Planet, New York: The Penquin Press