International Development

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Arguements against the Aid Model

Perhaps the best place for a Caanadian Student to start studying International Development is to consider the competing sides to the arguement that Foreign aid had been counter productive:

The Conservative Government under Harper have seemingly adopted this position and are moving away from aid to enhancing International trade.

The Richer are getting richer -So are the poor but the richer are getting richer at a faster pace. Why?

You can learn this by a casual reading of almost any of the books listed in the bibliography below.

Hard Work generally generates luck and a positive attitudfe doesn't hrt either.

International Financial System and Development

Report of the International Conference on Financing for Development, Monterrey, Mexico, 18-22 March 2002, the Monterrey Consensus

Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus

Doha Declaration on Financing for Development: outcome document of the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus

2005 World Summit Outcome and its resolution 61/16 of 20 November 2006 on strengthening of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, see 2005 World Summit Outcomes

Short report on The World Summit on Sustainable Development: reaffirming the centrality of health

Un General Assembly Resolution 61-16

On 20 November 2006, the General Assembly adopted resolution 61/16 entitled m“Strengthening the Economic and Social Council”. The resolution builds on the World Summit outcome and decides on ways to strengthen the Council as a principal Charter body.. Key ways to strengthen the Council’s role are

: · the holding of substantive Annual Ministerial Reviews on the implementation of the internationally agreed development goals, including the MDGs;

· the holding of biennial high-level Development Cooperation Forum in order to enhance the implementation of international development cooperation issues;

· the convening of ad hoc meetings on specific humanitarian emergencies in order to raise awareness and promote the engagement of all stakeholders in support of international relief efforts aimed at addressing those emergencies;

· the interaction with the newly established Peacebuilding Commission on the economic and social dimension of postconflict recovery and peace building

International Developmental Association

The International Development Association (IDA) is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. Established in 1960, IDA aims to reduce poverty by providing interest-free credits and grants for programs that boost economic growth, reduce inequalities and improve people’s living conditions. IDA complements the World Bank’s other lending arm–the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)–which serves middle-income countries with capital investment and advisory services. IBRD and IDA share the same staff and headquarters and evaluate projects with the same rigorous standards. IDA is one of the largest sources of assistance for the world’s 78 poorest countries, 39 of which are in Africa. It is the single largest source of donor funds for basic social services in the poorest countries. IDA lends money (known as credits) on concessional terms. This means that IDA credits have no interest charge and repayments are stretched over 35 to 40 years, including a 10-year grace period. IDA also provides grants to countries at risk of debt distress. Since its inception, IDA credits and grants .

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) aims to reduce poverty in middle-income and creditworthy poorer countries by promoting sustainable development through loans, guarantees, risk management products, and analytical and advisory services. Established in 1944 as the original institution of the World Bank Group, IBRD is structured like a cooperative that is owned and operated for the benefit of its member countries. IBRD raises most of its funds on the world's financial markets and has become one of the most established borrowers since issuing its first bond in 1947. The income that IBRD has generated over the years has allowed it to fund development activities and to ensure its financial strength, which enables it to borrow at low cost and offer clients good borrowing terms.

The World Bank

World Trade Organization (WTO): established January 1, 1995 to provide the legal, institutional framework for the multilateral trading system.  If a nation implements some trade policy that another nation feels violates some bilateral or multilateral agreement, one of their options is to take their case to the World Trade Organization who will make a ruling.

Resolutions 55/186 (2000) and 56/181 (2001) entitled “Towards a strengthened and stable international financial architecture responsive to the priorities of growth and development especially in developing countries, and to the promotion of economic and social equity”, UN General Assembly Resolution 2000 55/186 , UN General Assembly 56/181

Resolutions 57/241 (2002), 58/202 (2003), 59/222 (2004), 60/186 (2005), 61/187 (2006), and 62/185 (2007),

UN General Assembly Resolution 57/241 (2002)

UN General Assembly Resolution 58/202 (2003)

UN General Assembly Resolution 59/222 (2004)

UN General Assembly Resolution 60/186 (2005)

UN General Assembly Resolution 61/187 (2006)

UN General Assembly Resolution 62/185 (2007)

Further deeply concerned that the developed world will be unwilling and/or unable to provide the essential capital needed to continue the process of development in the developing world, Fearing that past improvements in the external debt situation faced by the Developing States may be reversed and the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative and the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative may be undermined,

Requests that developing countries are fully represented with equal input in any discussions or decision regarding the restructuring of international financial institutions,

Economic And Social Committee Resolution 2008-29

Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus

African Developmental Needs

Political Declaration on the Needs of Africa

Financing for Development

United Nation's Department of Economics and Social Affairs

Corruption Website

Brenton Woods Institutions: International Monetary Fund and the World Bank (see Debt Relief)

Role of United Nations Economic and Social Council and its civil Servant Department the Department of Economic and Social (see Economic and Social Council and ECOSOC and Department the Department of Economic and Social)

Millennium Developmental Goals (2000) (see Millenium Goals and particularly goal 8 Goal 8; See Fact Sheet

The Commission of Experts of the President of the UN General Assembly on Reforms of the International Monetary and Financial System

*A Development Charter for the G20

Bibliography

Freeland, Chrystia (2012) Plutocrats, The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else

Moyo, Dambisa (2009),Dead Aid

Sachs, Jeffrey (2005) The End of Poverty

Maathai, Wangari(2009) The Challenge for Africa