Foreign Affaires and International Trade
Minister of International Development
UN Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations
Flag: ( http://www.canadianheritage.gc.ca/progs/cpsc-ccsp/sc-cs/df1_e.cfm )
The National Flag of Canada
Proportions and Description of the flag
Birth of the Canadian flag
First "Canadian flags"
Flag Etiquette in Canada
O Canada was proclaimed Canada's national anthem on July 1, 1980, 100 years after it was first sung on June 24, 1880. The music was composed by Calixa Lavallée, a well-known composer; French lyrics to accompany the music were written by Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. Since then many English versions have been written for O Canada. However the version that gained the widest currency was made in 1908 by Robert Stanley Weir, a lawyer and at the time Recorder of the City of Montréal. Following further minor amendments, the first verse of Weir's poem was proclaimed as Canada's national anthem in 1980. The version adopted pursuant to the National Anthem Act in 1980 reads as follows:
O Canada! Our home and native land!
True patriot love in all thy sons command.
With glowing hearts we see thee rise,
The True North, strong and free!
From far and wide, O Canada,
We stand on guard for thee.
God keep our land glorious and free !
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.
Head of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons is automatically designated by the governor general to become prime minister
Head of government: Prime Minister Harper
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
bicameral Parliament or Parliament consists of the Senate or Senate (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chamber des Communes (301 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: at least every 5 years Members elected to House of Commons
Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)
Liberal Party,Bloc Quebecois, New Democratic Party, Conservative Party
Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US
Land Boundaries: total: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Coastline 243791 KM
total: 9,976,140 sq km, land: 9,220,970 sq km, water: 755,170 sq km
contiguous zone: 24 NM ,
territorial sea: 12 NM ,
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
arable land: 4.94% , permanent crops: 0.02% , other: 95.04% (1998 est.)
Environment Current Issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Environment International agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Marine Living
Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Population in 2003 Approximately 32,000,000
0-14 years: 18.7% (male 3,059,023; female 2,910,203)
15-64 years: 68.4% (male 10,975,701; female 10,857,869)
65 years and over: 12.9% (male 1,743,654; female 2,355,818) (2002 est.)
Population Growth Rate .96%; Birth Rate 11.09 births per 1,000 population; Death Rate 7.54 deaths/ 1000 population
Net migration rate: 6.07 migrants/ 1000 population
at birth: 1.05 males)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 males)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 males)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 males)/female
total population: 0.98 males)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality Rate: 4.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.69 years
female: 83.25 years (2002 est.)
male: 76.3 years
British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian
2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%
Religion: Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 36%, other 18%
note: based on the 1991 census
Languages: English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other 17.5%
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97% (1986 est.)
Jim Retson's Summary of Canada Foreign Policy
International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURCA, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Economy - overview:
As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada has a market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. As a result of the close cross-border relationship, the economic downturn in the United States in 2001 had a negative impact on the Canadian economy. Real growth averaged nearly 3% during 1993-2000, but declined in 2001. Unemployment is up, with contraction in the manufacturing and natural resource sectors. Nevertheless, with its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic prospects.
Disputes - international: maritime boundary disputes with the US (Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal Island)
Regionalism: Canada has often been scene as a nation of Regions as much as a whole.
The Following sites from the Mount Allison University Canadian Studies are worth looking at
Identity and Region
Dimensions of Canadian Regionalism
Geography, Demography and the Economy
The Social Dimension: Classes and Elites
Political Institutions, Processes and Policies
Region and Nation
Canadian And American Regionalism
Regional Identities Today
Other Web Sites
Canadian Foreign Policy
Permanent Mission of Canada to the UN http://www.un.int/canada/english.html
-Foreign Affairs Department http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/menu-e.asp
Government of Canada http://canada.gc.ca
-Canadian Studies Program Mount Allison
-Background Notes - U.S. Dept. of State http://www.state.gov/www/background_notes/canada_0899_bgn.html
|Overview: The International Policy Statement sets out the Government’s
international direction and priorities, described in greater detail in the attached
documents on diplomacy, defence, international commerce and development. Each of
these documents stands on its own as a complete statement of the Government’s
policy in each field.
|CANADA’S INTERNATIONAL POLICY STATEMENT “A Role of Pride and Influence in the World” April 19, 2005|
|REVITALIZING OUR NORTH AMERICAN PARTNERSHIP
1. SECURING THE CONTINENT
Collaborate with the United States and Mexico to protect North American territory and citizens from 21st
Protect Canada and Canadians by implementing the National Security Policy, and updating the
|2. PROSPERING IN NORTH AMERICA||Establish Canada as an attractive business gateway for those establishing a foothold in North America
Develop deeper knowledge of, and new channels of influence with, the United States and Mexico
Collaborate with our regional partners to build a competitive economic space that facilitates the free
movement of goods, services, capital, and people and enhances the quality of life of all North Americans. KEY INITIATIVES
• Maintain the integrity and improve the effectiveness of trade dispute mechanisms for North
• Reduce rules of origin costs on goods traded among the three NAFTA partners
• Reach for the best continent-wide standards and regulations that both promote the
competitiveness of businesses and ensure the health and safety of North America citizens
• Expand the FAST and NEXUS programs to facilitate border clearance by shippers and travellers
• Expand technological partnerships that promote the clean and efficient use of North American
energy resources, including initiatives in clean coal, hydrogen and renewable energy
• Intensify our advocacy efforts with U.S. decision makers through the newly established
parliamentary and provincial/territorial secretariat in Washington and our expanded consulate
• Improve trade research and policy capacity in Canada through the establishment of networks
such as the North American Forum
MAKING A DIFFERENCE GLOBALLY
1.1 Countering Terrorism
|Contribute to UN, NATO and G8 efforts to counteract terrorist organizations and cut off their support
networks. KEY INITIATIVES
• Increase Canada’s diplomatic contributions to the resolution of regional disputes that are exploited by
terrorists to mobilize their support
• Push for full implementation of international conventions to combat terrorism and terrorist financing
• Provide technical assistance to countries willing to combat terrorism through a new Counterterrorism
Capacity Building Program, anchored in Foreign Affairs
• Increase the Canadian Forces’ capacity to participate with allies in counterterror operations
|1.2 Stabilizing Failed and Fragile States
Establish a Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force (START) to plan and coordinate rapid and
integrated civilian responses to international crises.
Maintain combat-capable Canadian Forces, focused on the challenge of restoring peace and stability to
|1.3 Combatting Proliferation||
Prevent the spread and reduce the existing stocks of WMD. Strengthen international export control regimes on proliferation-sensitive technologies and build the
• Protect Canadian ports against their potential use for illicit activities, including the movement of drugs,
weapons and other contraband
• Participate in joint training missions and information sharing with other partners in the Proliferation
• Expand the G8 Global Partnership Program
• Use the 2005 NPT Review Conference to promote the strengthening of the Treaty’s commitment to
non-proliferation, disarmament ,and peaceful uses of nuclear energy
• Contribute Canadian technology to strengthening the international community’s WMD compliance and
• Use the Conference on Disarmament to re-engage key countries in talks on the Prevention of an Arms
Race in Outer Space
|2. INCREASING GLOBAL PROSPERITY
2.1 Strengthening Canada’s Global Competitiveness
Get the economic framework right at home.
|2.2 Increasing Trade and Investment||
Develop new frameworks to promote trade and investment with our mature markets, while reaching out to take advantage of emerging economic giants. Create a level playing field in international trade and investment through active participation in the WTO.
|2.3 Promoting Sustainable Development
PRIORITY FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
|Pursue sustainable development through both domestic and international strategies.
• Design an action plan to implement our Kyoto commitments in a timely fashion
• Contribute to the reform of the United Nations Environmental Programme
• Support implementation of the 2002 Cartagena Agreement on improvements in international
• Build on Canada’s Oceans Action Plan and work internationally to close gaps in the management of
• Launch a reform process for international fisheries governance at the May 2005 Conference on High
Seas Fisheries and the UN Fish Agreement
|3. TAKING RESPONSIBILITY
3.1 Respecting Human Rights
3.2 Building Genuine Development
Refocus Canadian development assistance to target states with the greatest need and greatest potential
Focus our contribution to the Millenium Development Goals on governance, private sector development, health, basic education and environmental sustainability.
Ensure our development assistance efforts systematically incorporate gender equality throughout.
Establish Canada Corps as a key mechanism for providing governance assistance to developing countries.
|CHANGING HOW WE WORK
1. THE NEW MULTILATERALISM
Contribute ideas, expertise and resources to reform efforts aimed at improving the effectiveness and
Revitalize Canada’s core international relationships, while strengthening our ties with key “pathfinder”
states and organizations.
Strengthen Canada’s influence in the western hemisphere.
2. THE NEW DIPLOMACY
PRIORITY FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
Create a new framework for international policy making that engages multiple departments and levels of government.
Cooper, Andrew F. Canadian Foreign Policy, Scarborough: Prentice Hall Allyn and Bacon, 1997
Donaldson, Gordon (1997) The Prime Ministers of Canada, Toronto: Doubleday Canada
Grant, George (2000) Ocean to Ocean, Sandford Fleming's Expedition Through Canada in 1872, Toronto: Prospero