The Purposes of the United Nations are:
- To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take
effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the
peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the
peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the
principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of
international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the
The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in
Article 1, shall act in accordance with the following
- The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of
all its Members.
- All Members, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits
resulting from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed
by them in accordance with the present Charter.
- All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in
such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not
- All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat
or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of
any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United
- All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action
it takes in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving
assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive
or enforcement action.
- The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the
United Nations act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be
necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security.
- Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United
Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic
jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters
to settlement under the present Charter; but this principle shall not
prejudice the application of enforcement measures under Chapter Vll.
PACIFIC SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES
- The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger
the maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek
a solution by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration,
judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other
peaceful means of their own choice.
The Security Council may investigate any dispute, or any situation which
might lead to international friction or give rise to a dispute, in order to
determine whether the continuance of the dispute or situation is likely to
endanger the maintenance of international peace and security.
- The Security Council may, at any stage of a dispute of the nature referred
to in Article 33 or of a situation of like nature, recommend appropriate
procedures or methods of adjustment.
- The Security Council should take into consideration any procedures for the
settlement of the dispute which have already been adopted by the parties.
- In making recommendations under this Article the Security Council should
also take into consideration that legal disputes should as a general rule be
referred by the parties to the International Court of Justice in accordance
with the provisions of the Statute of the Court.
- Should the parties to a dispute of the nature referred to in Article 33
fail to settle it by the means indicated in that Article, they shall refer it
to the Security Council.
- If the Security Council deems that the continuance of the dispute is in
fact likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security,
it shall decide whether to take action under Article 36 or to recommend such
terms of settlement as it may consider appropriate.
ACTION WITH RESPECT TO THREATS TO THE PEACE, BREACHES OF THE PEACE, AND ACTS
The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the
peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations,
or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to
maintain or restore international peace and security.
In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the Security Council
may, before making the recommendations or deciding upon the measures provided
for in Article 39, call upon the parties concerned to comply with such
provisional measures as it deems necessary or desirable. Such provisional
measures shall be without prejudice to the rights, claims, or position of the
parties concerned. The Security Council shall duly take account of failure to
comply with such provisional measures.
The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed
force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon
the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include
complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air,
postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance
of diplomatic relations.
Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41
would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by
air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore
international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations,
blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the
- All Members of the United Nations, in order to contribute to the
maintenance of international peace and security, undertake to make available
to the Security Council, on its call and in accordance with a special
agreement or agreements, armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including
rights of passage, necessary for the purpose of maintaining international
peace and security.
- Such agreement or agreements shall govern the numbers and types of forces,
their degree of readiness and general location, and the nature of the
facilities and assistance to be provided.
- The agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as soon as possible on the
initiative of the Security Council. They shall be concluded between the
Security Council and Members or between the Security Council and groups of
Members and shall be subject to ratification by the signatory states in
accordance with their respective constitutional processes.
When the Security Council has decided to use force it shall, before calling
upon a Member not represented on it to provide armed forces in fulfilment of the
obligations assumed under Article 43, invite that Member, if the Member so
desires, to participate in the decisions of the Security Council concerning the
employment of contingents of that Member's armed forces.
In order to enable the United Nations to take urgent military measures,
Members shall hold immediately available national air-force contingents for
combined international enforcement action. The strength and degree of readiness
of these contingents and plans for their combined action shall be determined
within the limits laid down in the special agreement or agreements referred to
in Article 43, by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff
Plans for the application of armed force shall be made by the Security
Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee.
- There shall be established a Military Staff Committee to advise and assist
the Security Council on all questions relating to the Security Council's
military requirements for the maintenance of international peace and security,
the employment and command of forces placed at its disposal, the regulation of
armaments, and possible disarmament.
- The Military Staff Committee shall consist of the Chiefs of Staff of the
permanent members of the Security Council or their representatives. Any Member
of the United Nations not permanently represented on the Committee shall be
invited by the Committee to be associated with it when the efficient discharge
of the Committee's responsibilities requires the participation of that Member
in its work.
- The Military Staff Committee shall be responsible under the Security
Council for the strategic direction of any armed forces placed at the disposal
of the Security Council. Questions relating to the command of such forces
shall be worked out subsequently.
- The Military Staff Committee, with the authorization of the Security
Council and after consultation with appropriate regional agencies, may
establish regional sub-committees.
- The action required to carry out the decisions of the Security Council for
the maintenance of international peace and security shall be taken by all the
Members of the United Nations or by some of them, as the Security Council may
- Such decisions shall be carried out by the Members of the United Nations
directly and through their action in the appropriate international agencies of
which they remembers.
The Members of the United Nations shall join in affording mutual assistance
in carrying out the measures decided upon by the Security Council.
If preventive or enforcement measures against any state are taken by the
Security Council, any other state, whether a Member of the United Nations or
not, which finds itself confronted with special economic problems arising from
the carrying out of those measures shall have the right to consult the Security
Council with regard to a solution of those problems.
Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual
or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the
United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to
maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by Members in the
exercise of this right of self-defence shall be immediately reported to the
Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and
responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any
time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore
international peace and security.
Armed Intervension short of All Out War
Military Build Ups and exercises
Threats of Armed Intervention
Sale of mitary equipment to neighbours of hosytile states
Armed Enforced Embargos